Probably not. U.S. citizens or residents living abroad can qualify for an exemption from the requirement to have minimum essential coverage as long as they meet certain requirements (e.g., U.S. citizen is a bona fide resident of a foreign country). (26 U.S.C. §5000A (f)(4); IRS, Individual Shared Responsibility Provision-Exemptions: Claiming or Reporting).
If you are a resident of Massachusetts, the California, District of Columbia, Massachusetts, New Jersey, or Rhode Island and do not have health insurance coverage in 2020, exemptions from the tax penalty may differ. Check with your state insurance department to find out more – a list of state departments of insurance is available under our Resources, When and How to Contact Insurance Regulators.